Jūratė Kazickas 1989-1991 Baltic Independence Newspaper Clippings Collection Finding Aid

Dates: 1989-1991

Creator: Kazickas, Jūratė (1943-)

Extent: 1 linear ft. 1 in.

Level of description:

Language: English, Lithuanian, Russian

Processor & date: Auguste Baltrimaviciute, December 2018 – April 2019

 

Administration Information

Restrictions: none

Copyright:

Citation: Lithuanian Archives Project, Jūratė Kazickas 1989-1991 Baltic Independence Newspaper Clippings Collection. Box 1-3, Folder 1-6.

Provenance: In November 2018 Jūratė Kazickas wrote an email to the Lithuanian Archives Project (LAP) and requested that LAP organize and digitize the collection. LAP received the collection in a box by mail from New York City.

Separations: none

See Also:

 

Biographical Sketch

Jūratė Kazickas was born on February 18, 1943. Fleeing the Soviet Army, Kazickas and her family left Lithuania in 1944 to seek safety in Germany. After about three years in different displaced persons camps, the Kazickas family finally found refuge in the United States. There Kazickas graduated from Trinity College in Washington, D.C. Working as a journalist, Kazickas covered the Vietnam War, the Middle East and the Carter White House. She has also co-authored books such as Susan B. Anthony Slept Here and War Torn: Stories of War from the Women Reporters Who Covered Vietnam. Currently, Kazickas is involved in work related to refugees.

 

Scope and Content

The Jūratė Kazickas 1989-1991 Baltic Independence Newspaper Clippings Collection consists of 1 linear foot and 1 inch spanning the years 1989-1991. The collection consists of newspaper and magazine clippings and various documents and letters. The main subjects included are Lithuanian Independence and U.S. relations with the Soviet Union and Lithuania. The collection is organized as a container list.

 

Series Info

Series 1: Newspaper Clippings, May 25, 1989-December 31, 1989

This series consists of newspaper clippings. Subjects include the Soviet Union, the Lithuanian Communist Party, Algridas Brazauskas and Mikhail Gorbachev.

 

Series 2: Newspaper Clippings, January 3, 1990-December 14, 1990

This series consists of newspaper clippings. Subjects include the Soviet Union, Mikhail Gorbachev, Lithuanian secession/independence, Sajudis, Vytautas Landsbergis, Kazimiera Prunskiene and George H.W. Bush.

 

Series 3: Newspaper Clippings, January 7, 1991-September 17, 1991

This series consists of newspaper clippings. Subjects include the Soviet Union, the Soviet Army/troops, Mikhail Gorbachev, Boris Yeltsin, Lithuanian independence, Latvia, Sajudis, Vytautas Landsbergis and George H.W. Bush.

 

Series 4: Magazine Articles, January 21, 1990-September 9, 1991

This series consists of magazine articles. Subjects include the Soviet Union, the Soviet Army/troops, Mikhail Gorbachev, Lithuanian independence and George H.W. Bush.

 

Series 5: Miscellaneous

This series consists of various letters, documents, articles and a book. Subjects include the Soviet Union, Mikhail Gorbachev, Boris Yeltsin, Lithuanian independence, Vytautas Landsbergis, Kazimiera Prunskiene and George H.W. Bush.

 

Subjects:

Soviet Union

Lithuanian Communist Party

Algridas Brazauskas

Mikhail Gorbachev

Lithuanian independence

Sajudis

Vytautas Landsbergis

Kazimiera Prunskiene

George H.W. Bush

Soviet Army

Boris Yeltsin

 

Container List

 

Series 1: Newspaper Clippings, May 25, 1989-December 31, 1989

 

Box 1

Folder 1

 

Safire, William. “Free the Baltics.” The New York Times, May 25, 1989.

 

Devroy, Ann, and Don Oberdorfer. “Bush Sees Historic Shift Possible in Bloc Ties: ‘Radical Change’ in Soviet Union Cited.” The Washington Post, June 2, 1989.

 

Dobbs, Michael. “Inquiry Set on Baltics Seizure: Soviet Panel to Review 1940 Annexations.” The Washington Post, June 2, 1989.

 

Pear, Robert. “U.S. Says German-Soviet Treaties Are Real.” The New York Times, June 5, 1989.

 

“Danger in the Baltic.” Financial Times, August 30, 1989.

 

Remnick, David. “The Cultivation of Young Gorbachev: Past Friends Trace the Roots of Mikhail Sergeyevich’s Ambition.” The Washington Post, December 1, 1989.

 

“…And the Lithuanian Example.” The Washington Post, December 13, 1989.

 

Fein, Esther B. “Lithuanian Party Nears the Brink: Top Communist Seeks to Lay Basis for a Moscow Split.” The New York Times, December 20, 1989.

 

Remnick, David. “Lithuanian Communist Leader Urges Party to Cut Kremlin Ties.” The Washington Post, December 20, 1989.

 

Remnick, David. “Lithuania’s Party Breaks With Moscow: Leader Says Eventual Goal Is Republic’s Independence.” The Washington Post, December 21, 1989.

 

Fein, Esther B. “Gorbachev Voices ‘Alarm’ On Lithuanian Party Split.” The New York Times, December 21, 1989.

 

“Lithuania wants free Baltic state.” December 23, 1989.

 

“Gorbachev warns separatists they risk ‘bloodshed, death’.” The New York Times. Rpt. in The Denver Post, December 24, 1989.

 

“Soviet president singled out for role in shaping the future.” Associated Press. The Denver Post, December 24, 1989.

 

“Gorbachev trying to bring Lithuania back into the fold.” December 27, 1989.

 

Wicker, Tom. “Is the Soviet Union starting to disintegrate?” The Denver Post, December 31, 1989.

Series 2: Newspaper Clippings, January 3, 1990-December 14, 1990

 

Box 1

Folder 2

 

Schaeffer, Robert. “To Lithuania: Stay Put.” The New York Times, January 3, 1990.

 

“Soviet Decolonization.” The Wall Street Journal, January 3, 1990.

 

Safire, William. “The Z Document: ‘Mr. X’ in Our Time.” The New York Times, January 4, 1990.

 

Fein, Esther B. “Lithuanians Say Gorbachev Eases Off.” The New York Times, January 5, 1990.

 

Remnick, David. “Lithuanian Communists’ Prestige Rises Sharply: Poll Shows Rise After Party Decided to Defy Gorbachev, Seek Its Independence.” The Washington Post, January 9, 1990.

 

Remnick, David. “Lithuanian Protest, Wait for Gorbachev: Soviet Leader Arrives for Talks Today.” The Washington Post, January 10, 1990.

 

Fein, Esther B. “Lithuanians Cry ‘Freedom!’ On Eve of Gorbachev Visit.” The New York Times, January 11, 1990.

 

Lewis, Paul. “U.N., Bowing to Soviets, Halts Its Baltic Contacts.” The New York Times, January 11, 1990.

 

Lewis, Paul. “U.S. Criticizes U.N. Over Baltic Move: State Dept. Says It ‘Regrets’ Ending of Contacts With Nationalist Groupings.” The New York Times, January 12, 1990.

 

Fein, Esther B. “Gorbachev urges Lithuania to Stay With Soviet Union But Success Is Doubted: A Kremlin Colleague Asserts Secession is Legal for the Turbulent Baltic Land.” The New York Times, January 12, 1990.

 

Safire, William. “Workers of the World.” The New York Times, January 12, 1990.

 

Helprin, Mark. “A Single Bullet.” The Wall Street Journal, January 12, 1990.

 

Remnick, David. “Gorbachev Urges Lithuanians Not to Press for Independence.” The Washington Post, January 12, 1990.

 

Keller, Bill. “Buying Time in Lithuania: His Choices Severely Limited, Gorbachev Is Forced to Sell the Virtues of Federation.” The New York Times, January 13, 1990.

 

Lewis, Neil A. “Tough Choice for the U.S.: Baltic States or Gorbachev.” The New York Times, January 13, 1990.

 

Fein, Esther B. “Nationalists in Vilnius Turn Down Soviet Call for New Secession Law.” The New York Times, January 13, 1990.

 

Remnick, David. “Gorbachev Drops Bar On Multiple Parties: End to Communist Monopoly No ‘Tragedy’.” The Washington Post, January 13, 1990.

 

Fein, Esther B. “Gorbachev Hints He Would Accept Multiparty Rule: Winds Up Lithuania Visit.” The New York Times, January 14, 1990.

 

Prial, Frank J. “Lithuania: A Land Most Often Dominated by Grasping Neighbors.” The New York Times, January 14, 1990.

 

“Lithuania rejects Gorbachev plan.” Financial Times, January 14, 1990.

 

Blitz, James. “Lithuanian giant-killers corner Gorbachev.” The Sunday Times, January 14, 1990.

 

Keller, Bill. “Can Gorbachev Stay On if Lithuanian Chooses to Leave?” The New York Times, January 14, 1990.

 

“Excerpts From a Speech by Gorbachev Before the Lithuanian Communists.” The The New York Times, January 14, 1990.

 

Safire, William. “Baltics + Z = F.S.R.” The New York Times, January 15, 1990.

 

Kirkpatrick, Jeane. “If They Ousted Gorbachev.” The The New York Times, January 15, 1990.

 

Gumbel, Peter. “Baltic Juggernaut: A Defiant Lithuania Leads Soviet States In Drive to Break Free.” The Wall Street Journal, January 15, 1990.

 

Peel, Quentin. “Gorbachev loses his argument with the Lithuanians.” Financial Times, January 15, 1990.

 

“Party Chief Wins Vote In Lithuania: New President Defied Moscow.” The Washington Post, January 15, 1990.

 

Leadbeater, Charles, Nick Garnett and Peter Marsh. “Investing in the revolution.” Financial Times, January 15, 1990.

 

Remnick, David. “Gorbachev Daunted, Not Defeated, on Trip: Lithuanian Independence Still at Issue.” The Washington Post, January 15, 1990.

 

Dallin, Alexander. “Eastern Europe: Ammunition for Moscow’s Wars.” The Washington Post, January 15, 1990.

 

Slider, Darrell. “U.S. Can Help Soviet Private Entrepreneurs.” The New York Times, January 16, 1990.

 

Ulenas, Jonas. “Don’t Listen, Lithuania.” The New York Times, January 16, 1990.

 

“Gorbachev in Lilliput.” The Wall Street Journal, January 16, 1990.

 

Whitney, Craig R. “Prague Honors Martyred Student: Names Square for Protester Fatally Burned in 1969.” The New York Times, January 17, 1990.

 

Evans, Rowland and Robert Novak. “Gorbachev’s Oil Weapon.” The Washington Post, January 17, 1990.

 

“Nationalism at Its Nastiest.” The New York Times, January 19, 1990.

 

Goshko, John M. “U.S. Stake in Gorbachev Survival Rises; Baltic Situation Causes Most Concern.” The Washington Post, January 21, 1990.

 

“Endorsing Mr. Gorbachev.” The Washington Post, January 25, 1990.

 

Oberdorfer, Don. “Lithuanians Blockage KGB’s Gates: Removal of Files Halted.” The Washington Post, January 30, 1990.

 

Dobbs, Michael. “Soviet Groups Set Talks on Conflict in South: Baltic Sponsors Report 3-Point Agenda.” The Washington Post, January 30, 1990.

 

Box 2

Folder 1

 

Oberdorfer, Don. “Baltic Secession: Not Just If, but When.” The Washington Post, February 5, 1990.

 

Keller, Bill. “Lithuanian Sees Completely Different Future for Communism.” The New York Times, February 7, 1990.

 

Clines, Francis X. “Gorbachev Backed: A Western-Style System of Government Urged as Meeting ends.” The New York Times, February 8, 1990.

 

Keller, Bill. “Caution: The Soviet Party Is Not Over.” The New York Times, February 8, 1990.

 

“Excerpts From Remarks by Soviet Ambassador.” The New York Times, February 8, 1990.

 

Remnick, David. “Soviet Party Retreat Emboldens Nationalists in Baltic States.” The Washington Post, February 9, 1990.

 

Moore, Molly. “Arms Panel Members Get Taste of Glasnost.” The Washington Post, February 9, 1990.

 

Dobbs, Michael. “Lithuanian Nationalists Call for Independence.” The Washington Post, February 16, 1990.

 

Keller, Bill. “Lithuanians Unruffled as First Free Election Nears.” The New York Times, February 22, 1990.

 

Dobbs, Michael. “Lithuanian Vote: Step Toward Soviet Democracy.” The Washington Post, February 24, 1990.

 

“Comrades to the Polls: The Soviet Elections.” N.d.

 

Clines, Francis X. “Nationalists Victorious In Lithuanian Election.” The New York Times, February 25, 1990.

 

“Lithuanians Get Real Choices In Historic Vote.” February 25, 1990.

 

Keller, Bill. “Lithuanians Vote Strongly for Independence Backers; Soviet Crowds Ask Change.” The New York Times, February 25, 1990.

 

Remnick, David. “Lithuanian Voters Reject Communists: Pro-Independence Forces Elected to Assembly.” The Washington Post, February 26, 1990.

 

Dobbs, Michael. “Soviets Hold Protests for Democracy.” The Washington Post, February 26, 1990.

 

“Lithuanian victor sees independence by year end.” New York Post, February 26, 1990.

 

Remnick, David. “Gorbachev’s Problem: His Reforms Are Outpacing the Party’s Reformists.” The Washington Post, February 27, 1990.

 

“Kremlin Says It Found Secret Soviet-Nazi Pact.” The New York Times, February 27, 1990.

 

“Lithuania’s Example.” The Washington Post, February 28, 1990.

 

Clines, Francis X. “Lithuania Steps Up Drive to Leave Soviet Union.” The New York Times, March 1, 1990.

 

Friedman, Thomas L. “Baker Warns Shevardnadze Against Clamp on Lithuania.” The New York Times, March 4, 1990.

 

Friedman, Thomas L. “U.S.-Soviet Summit Is Planned May 30 with Bush as Host.” The New York Times, March 5, 1990.

 

Keller, Bill. “Lithuanian Parliament Expected to Declare Independence Sunday.” The New York Times, March 6, 1990.

 

Remnick, David. “Gorbachev to Lithuanians: Pay for Independence.” The Washington Post, March 7, 1990.

 

Peel, Quentin. “Gorbachev urges sharing of power.” Financial Times, March 11, 1990.

 

Friedman, Thomas L. “U.S.Advises Moscow To ‘Respect’ Lithuania.” The New York Times, March 11, 1990.

 

Remnick, David. “Lithuanian Votes Independence: Legislature Seeks Soviet Secession; Non-Communist Is Elected President.” The Washington Post, March 11, 1990.

 

“Financial Times Survey: The Soviet Union.” Financial Times, March 12, 1990.

 

Keller, Bill. “Parliament in Lithuania, 124-0, Declares Nation Independent.” The New York Times, March 12, 1990.

 

Fein, Esther B. “Gorbachev Calls Lithuania’s Move An ‘Alarming’ Step.” The New York Times, March 12, 1990.

 

Kifner, John. “Poland’s Leaders Praise Lithuanian Sovereignty.” The New York Times, March 12, 1990.

 

“Two Liberations in Lithuania.” The New York Times, March 12, 1990.

 

Peel, Quentin and John Parker. “Lithuania declares formal independence from Moscow.” The Financial Times, n.d.

 

Remnick, David. “Gorbachev Voices ‘Alarm’ At Lithuania’s Declaration: Political Solution Sought; Force Ruled Out.” The Washington Post, March 12, 1990.

 

Keller, Bill. “Morning After in Lithuania: Pride Is Tempered by Doubt.” The New York Times, March 13, 1990.

 

“Lithuania’s Declaration.” The New York Times, March 13, 1990.

 

“The Lithuanians Speak.” March 13, 1990.

 

Fein, Esther B. “Lithuania Move Is ‘Illegitimate,’ Gorbachev Says.” The New York Times, March 13, 1990.

 

Remnick, David. “Gorbachev Rules Out ‘Negotiations,’ but Baltic Talks Advance.” The Washington Post, March 13, 1990.

 

Goshko, John M. “U.S. Defers Opening Diplomatic Relations With Lithuania.” The Washington Post, March 13, 1990.

 

Summers, Lawrence. “Gorbachev Should Pay Lithuania.” The New York Times, March 14, 1990.

 

Daley, Suzanne. “Lithuanian-Americans React With Joy After 50-Year Wait.” The New York Times, March 14, 1990.

 

“Excerpts From President’s News Session on Foreign and Domestic Issues.” The New York Times, March 14, 1990.

 

Dobbs, Michael. “Soviet Legislature Rejects Lithuanian Independence.” The Washington Post, March 15, 1990.

 

Fein, Esther B. “Soviet Congress Rejects Lithuanian Secession Move.” The New York Times, March 15, 1990.

 

Clines, Francis X. “The Question of Sovereignty Is Everything in Estonia.” The New York Times, March 16, 1990.

 

“Soviet Congress Rules Lithuania Vote Invalid.” March 16, 1990.

 

Dobbs, Michael. “Lithuania Pleads for Recognition: Baltic Republic Defies Gorbachev, Forms Government.” The Washington Post, March 17, 1990.

 

“Cheer Lithuania, but Don’t Meddle.” The New York Times, March 17, 1990.

 

Myerson, Allen R. “Lithuanian Independence: Costly.” The New York Times, March 18, 1990.

 

Englehart, Bob. The Hartford Courant. Rpt. in The New York Times, March 18, 1990.

 

Clines, Francis X. “Gorbachev Denies That an Ultimatum Has Been Issued to Lithuania.” The New York Times, March 18, 1990.

 

Dobbs, Michael. “Soviets Begin ‘Maneuvers’ In Lithuania; Dialogue Urged.” The Washington Post, March 18, 1990.

 

Dobbs, Michael. “Lithuania appeals for recognition.” The Washington Post, March 18, 1990.

 

Clines, Francis X. “Soviet Insurgents Voted Into Power in the 3 Main Cities.” The New York Times, March 19, 1990.

 

“Lithuanians, Soviets begin talks: Leaflets call for anti-secession demonstration.” N.d.

 

Fein, Esther B. “Moscow Putting Added Pressure On Lithuanians.” The New York Times, March 19, 1990.

 

Dobbs, Michael. “Soviet Party Rebuffed In City, Regional Vote: Moscow Orders Tighter Security in Lithuania.” The Washington Post, March 19, 1990.

 

Neuman, Johanna. “Lithuania fears Gorbachev shift: Legation kept freedom’s spirit alive.” USA Today, March 20, 1990.

 

“Text of Soviet Statement Warning Lithuania Against Breaking With Moscow.” The New York Times, March 20, 1990.

 

Clines, Francis X. “Moscow and Lithuanians Stand Firm.” The New York Times, March 20, 1990.

 

Rosenthal, Andrew. “U.S., in Sharper Tone, Is Worried By Soviets’ Pressure on Lithuania.” The New York Times, March 20, 1990.

 

Remnick, David. “Violence Unlikely in Lithuania: Kremlin, Baltic Leaders Engage in War of Words Over Secession.” The Washington Post, March 20, 1990.

 

Goshko, John M. “Shevardnadze Assures Baker On Lithuania: no Force Planned, Soviet Official Says.” The Washington Post, March 20, 1990.

 

Devroy, Ann and Don Oberdorfer. “U.S. Eyeing Movement Of Troops in Lithuania.” The Washington Post, March 20, 1990.

 

Clines, Francis X. “Gorbachev Tells Lithuanians To Turn In Arms.” The New York Times, March 21, 1990.

 

Fein, Esther B. “Lithuanian Soldiers Are Outcasts in Soviet Army.” The New York Times, March 21, 1990.

 

Remnick, David. “Lithuanians Ordered To Surrender Arms: Gorbachev Asserts Power of New Office.” The Washington Post, March 21, 1990.

 

Evans, Rowland and Robert Novak. “Hands Off the Baltics.” The Washington Post, March 21, 1990.

 

“The Lithuanian David.” The Washington Post, The Washington Post, March 21, 1990.

 

Evans, Rowland and Robert Novak. “Washington’s aloofness puzzles secessionist Lithuania’s new president.” The Washington Post, March 21, 1990.

 

Hoffman, David. “Administration Warns Moscow on Lithuania.” The Washington Post, March 21, 1990.

 

“Avoiding Fire in Lithuania.” The New York Times, March 21, 1990.

 

Box 2

Folder 2

 

“Texts of Gorbachev Decree and Lithuanian Reply.” The New York Times, March 22, 1990.

 

Cooper, Ann. “Americans in Vilnius Taste Their Parents’ Past.” The New York Times, March 22, 1990.

 

Cooper, Ann. “Visitors to Vilnius Glimpse Their Parents’ Past.” The New York Times, March 22, 1990.

 

Rosenthal, Andrew. “Bush Urges Gorbachev to Avoid A Military Assault in Lithuania: U.S. Weighs Goals of Independence and Stability.” The New York Times, March 22, 1990.

 

Fein, Esther B. “Lithuania Assails Moscow’s Tactics as Convoy Arrives: Display of Soviet Force.” The New York Times, March 22, 1990.

 

Nicholson, Mark and Peter Riddell. “Gorbachev tells Lithuania to stop formation of militia.” March 23, 1990.

 

“Breaking up is hard to do.” March 23, 1990.

 

The Lithuanian Review, March 23, 1990.

 

Safire, William. “Let Lithuania Go.” The New York Times, March 23, 1990.

 

Gleb, Leslie H. “Behind the Lithuania Crisis: Military and K.G.B. Make Gorbachev Err.” The New York Times, March 23, 1990.

 

Clines, Francis X. “Gorbachev Pressing Lithuanians To Shun Any Self-Defense Plans.” The New York Times, March 23, 1990.

 

Clines, Francis X. “From a Dark Convoy, Stalin’s Specter Looms.” The New York Times, March 24, 1990.

 

Fein, Esther B. “Lithuania Aides Won’t Turn Over Army’s Deserters: Moscow Sets a Deadline.” The New York Times, March 24, 1990.

 

Fein, Esther B. “Lithuanian to the Core: Vytautas Landsbergis.” The New York Times, March 25, 1990.

 

Haberman, Clyde. “Pope Urges Just Solution To Lithuanian Standoff.” The New York Times, March 25, 1990.

 

Clines, Francis X. “Freedom in a Locked Ward in Vilnius.” The New York Times, March 25, 1990.

 

“Soviet convoy roars through Lithuanian city.” The Denver Post, March 25, 1990.

 

Clines, Francis X. “Lenin Is Alive and Well and Reporting From Lithuania.” The New York Times, March 25, 1990.

 

Kirk, Don. “Seizure angers Lithuania.” USA Today, March 26, 1990.

 

Gumbel, Peter. “Tense War of Nerves in Lithuania May Be Backfiring for Gorbachev: In Other Republics, Resolve To Seek Independence Seems to Be Stiffening.” The Wall Street Journal, March 26, 1990.

 

“Soldiers occupy Lithuanian schools; leader fears troops may take over legislature.” Associated Press, March 26, 1990.

 

“Lithuania sees freedom as test for perestroika.” Associated Press, March 26, 1990.

 

Schmidt, William E. “Fear for Lithuania Has U.S. Emigres on the Watch.” The New York Times, March 26, 1990.

 

Scheffer, David J. “A Way to Save Lithuania.” The New York Times, March 26, 1990.

 

Whipple, Dan. “Expert says Soviets won’t let Lithuania secede.” Casper Star-Tribune, March 27, 1990.

 

“Tiananmen in Vilnius?” The Wall Street Journal, March 27, 1990.

 

Pear, Robert. “Moscow Worries About Effect of Nationalist Tensions on Army.” The New York Times, March 27, 1990.

 

Keller, Bill. “Foreigners Told to Leave Lithuania.” The New York Times, March 27, 1990.

Clines, Francis X. “Soviet Troops Reportedly Arrest Lithuanian Deserters at Hospital.” The New York Times, March 27, 1990.

 

Kirk, Don. “Maestro directs Lithuania.” USA Today, March 27, 1990.

 

Keller, Bill. “For Lithuania, Few Allies in Moscow.” The New York Times, March 27, 1990.

 

Rosenthal, Andrew. “U.S. Softens Tone on Lithuania Issue: White House Is Not Prepared to Side With the Republic.” The New York Times, March 28, 1990.

 

Clines, Francis X. “Lithuanian Police Guard Parliament as Pressure Rises: New Soviet Raids Feared.” The New York Times, March 28, 1990.

 

“White House mutes criticism of Soviet action in Lithuania.” Associated Press. Jackson Hole Daily, March 28, 1990.

 

“Lithuania demands return of deserters.” Associated Press. Jackson Hole Daily, March 28, 1990.

 

“Cautious Courage About Lithuania.”The New York Times, March 28, 1990.

 

Clines, Francis X. “The Standoff In Lithuania: Deep Defiance Meets Kremlin Suppression.” The New York Times, March 28, 1990.

 

Rosenthal, Andrew. “Foley Supports Bush on Lithuania:’Delicate’ Situation Is Noted by the House Speaker – Others Tread Gingerly.” The New York Times, March 28, 1990.

 

“Lithuania backs off border guard plan.” Associated Press. March 29, 1990.

 

Clines, Francis X. “Lithuania Offers to Discuss a Vote on Its Sovereignty: A Conciliatory Message.” The New York Times, March 30, 1990.

 

Malyshkin, Alexander. “Soviets want peaceful solution with Lituania.” USA Today, March 30, 1990.

 

“Soviets must stop bullying Lithuania.” USA Today, March 30, 1990.

 

“Topics of the Times.” The New York Times, March 30, 1990.

 

Safire, William. “Baltics to Baghdad.” The New York Times, March 30, 1990.

 

Gordon, Michael R. “U.S. Will Avoid Inflaming Crisis, Bush Assures Gorbachev in Note.” The New York Times, March 30, 1990.

 

Clines, Francis X. “Moscow’s Forces Seize 2 Key Sites from Lithuanians: Paratroops Stage Raids.” The New York Times, March 30, 1990.

 

Fein, Esther B. “Gorbachev Offers Conditional Talks with Lithuanians: Coupled with a Warning.” The New York Times, March 31, 1990.

 

Remnick, David. “Gorbachev Asks Lithuania To ‘Annul’ Independence: Soviet President Warns of ‘Grave Consequences’” The Washington Post, March 31, 1990.

 

Rosenthal, Andrew. “U.S. Fears Baltic Crisis Will Hurt Moscow Ties.” The New York Times, March 31, 1990.

 

Dobbs, Michael. “Gorbachev’s Power Wider, But Not His Legitimacy: Lithuania Typifies New President’s Problems.” The Washington Post, March 31, 1990.

 

“Bush sends Gorbachev letter on Lithuania.” Associated Press. Casper Star-Tribune, March 31, 1990.

 

“Soviets take Lithuanian government building.” Associated Press. Casper Star-Tribune, March 31, 1990.

 

Box 2

Folder 3

 

“Texts of Gorbachev’s Statements to Lithuanians.” The New York Times, April 1, 1990.

 

Dobbs, Michael. “Soviets Add To Force in Lithuania: Armored Column Arrives as Leaders In Vilnius Seek Talks.” The Washington Post, April 1, 1990.

 

Clines, Francis X. “Moscow Sends Armored Vehicles Through Tense Lithuania Capital.” The New York Times, April 1, 1990.

 

Safire, William. “The Grave Consequence.” The New York Times, April 2, 1990.

 

Mossberg, Walter S. “On Lithuania, Bush Must Juggle Support For Both Gorbachev, Self-Determination.” The Wall Street Journal, April 2, 1990.

 

Remnick, David. “Lithuania Seeking To Ease Tensions: Landsbergis Plans ‘Gradual’ Power Transfer.” The Washington Post, April 2, 1990.

 

Fein, Esther B. “Estonia Sends Firmer Signal to Moscow.” The New York Times, April 2, 1990.

 

Clines, Francis X. “Lithuania Leader Softens His Tone Toward Moscow: Sees No Hurry To Secede.” The New York Times, April 2, 1990.

 

Remnick, David. “Yakovlev Meets with Lithuanians: Soviet Legislature Approves Law Setting Rules for Secession.” The Washington Post, April 3, 1990.

 

Fein, Esther B. “Youths in Estonia Defying the Soviet Military Are Finding Eager Helpers.” The New York Times, April 3, 1990.

 

Apple, R.W., Jr. “Dual Bluffs On Lithuania: U.S. and Moscow Try To Preserve Summit.” The New York Times, April 3, 1990.

 

Hoagland, Jim. “The Lithuania Waiting Game.” The Washington Post, April 3, 1990.

 

Lewis, Flora. “A Chance for Lithuania.” The New York Times, April 3, 1990.

 

“Call Off the Tanks.” The Washington Post, April 3, 1990.

 

Whitney, Craig R. “Lithuanians Meet Gorbachev’s Aide; Seek to Ease Crisis.” The New York Times, April 3, 1990.

 

Oberdorfer, Don. “Shevardnadze Backs ‘Honest Dialogue’ to Solve Lithuania Crisis.” The Washington Post, April 4, 1990.

 

Clines, Francis X. “Gorbachev Warns Estonia on Moves for Independence: An Insistent Phone Call.” The New York Times, April 4, 1990.

 

Dobbs, Michael. “Gorbachev Warns Estonia to Back Off: Kremlin Threatens Lithuania-Style Steps.” The Washington Post, April 4, 1990.

 

Szporluk, Roman. “Gorbachev’s Need: A Diminished Russia.” The New York Times, April 5, 1990.

 

“Lithuania: A Look at the ‘Large Picture’.” The Washington Post, April 5, 1990.

 

Oberdorfer, Don and R. Jeffrey Smith. “Baker, Shevardnadze Open Talks: Brief June Summit Indicated; Aides Discuss Multi-Warhead Missiles.” The Washington Post, April 5, 1990.

 

Clines, Francis X. “Kremlin Troops Move In to Evict Lithuania Aids.” The New York Times, April 5, 1990.

 

Dobbs, Michael. “Lithuania Ready for Kremlin Talks: Separatist Legislature Responds Politely but Firmly to Gorbachev.” The Washington Post, April 6, 1990.

 

Rosenfeld, Stephen S. “Is Lithuania Good for Us?” The Washington Post, April 6, 1990.

 

Friedman, Thomas L. “A Baltic Chill On Relations: Momentum Is Slower In Superpower Talks.” The New York Times, April 7, 1990.

 

“Throngs Rally in Lithuania To Back Independence Call.” Reuters. The New York Times, April 8, 1990.

 

Dobbs, Michael. “Communists In Latvia Split Ranks: 300,000 Lithuanians Stage Defiance Rally.” The Washington Post, April 8, 1990.

 

Davies, R.T. “Recognize Lithuania.” The Washington Post, April 8, 1990.

 

“Gambling on Gorbachev.” April 8, 1990.

 

“Sounds of Silence.” New Republic, April 8, 1990.

 

Oberdorfer, Don. “U.S.-Soviet Relations Take a Turn: Setbacks Threatened On Lithuania, Arms.” The Washington Post, April 8, 1990.

 

“Lithuanians, Soviets begin talks: Leaflets call for anti-secession demonstration.” Associated Press. N.d.

 

“Lithuania Is Not Tiananmen Square.” The New York Times, April 8, 1990.

 

Dobbs, Michael. “Soviets to Turn Up Heat on Lithuania: Georgians Rally for Independence.” The Washington Post, April 9, 1990.

 

Whitney, Craig R. “Gorbachev’s Line on Lithuania Grows Stricter but Less Specific.” The New York Times, April 9, 1990.

 

Shultz, George P. “What I’d Tell Mikhail Sergeyevich.” The Wall Street Journal, April 9, 1990.

 

Kirkpatrick, Jeane. “Gorbachev’s Deal Is Not Unreasonable.” The Washington Post, April 9, 1990.

 

Whitney, Craig R. “The News of Lithuania, But With Kremlin Spin.” The New York Times, April 10, 1990.

 

Remnick, David. “Kremlin Unlikely to Assert Rule.” The Washington Post, April 10, 1990.

 

Hoffman, David. “Bush, Mulroney Praise Gorbachev: Lithuania Said To Cause Concern.” The Washington Post, April 10, 1990.

 

Chervokas, John V. “Vilnius to Moscow: Pasisvilpk.” The New York Times, April 10, 1990.

 

Fein, Esther B. “Gorbachev Speaks of Lithuania Move: Talks of Using New Power to Impose Moscow’s Control on Republic, Tass Says.” The New York Times, April 10, 1990.

 

Shogren, Elizabeth. “Estonia Takes Slow Road to Freedom: Lithuania’s Baltic Neighbor Avoids Direct Challenge to Moscow, but Seeks Same Result.” The Washington Post, April 11, 1990.

 

Kristol, Irving. “Bush Is Right About Lithuania.”The Wall Street Journal, April 11, 1990.

 

Wanniski, Jude. “Lithuanian Independence Deserves Recognition” [letter to the editor]. The New York Times, April 11, 1990.

 

Devroy, Ann. “Bush Turns Back Baltic-Americans’ Lithuania Appeal.” The Washington Post, April 12, 1990.

 

Clines, Francis X. “Gorbachev Warns Lithuania of Ban on Major Supplies: Wants New Laws Killed.” The New York Times, April 13, 1990.

 

Rosenthal, Andrew. “New Soviet Threat ‘Disturbing’ to Bush.” The New York Times, April 13, 1990.

 

The Lithuanian Review, April 13, 1990.

 

Whitney, Craig R. “Military’s Voice Being Heard on Lithuania, a Soviet Aide Says.” The New York Times, April 14, 1990.

 

Remnick, David. “Gorbachev Uses Lithuania To Send Soviets a Message.” The Washington Post, April 14, 1990.

 

Devroy, Ann. “Bush Reviews U.S. Options On Lithuania: Soviets Urged to Stop ‘Escalation’ of Crisis.” The Washington Post, April 14, 1990.

 

Schrader, Esther. “Vilnius: Government by Adrenalin.” The Washington Post, April 15, 1990.

 

Haberman, Clyde. “John Paul Says a Prayer For Lithuania’s Success.” The New York Times, April 15, 1990.

 

“Lithuania’s Deadline Passes.” April 15, 1990.

 

Rosenthal, A.M. “How to Desert A Friend: Washington shows all the techniques.” The New York Times, April 15, 1990.

 

Dobbs, Michael. “Deadline Passes in Lithuania: Leaders Question Impact of Moscow’s Threatened Blockade.” The Washington Post, April 15, 1990.

 

Fein, Esther B. “Lithuanians Offer New Concessions to Avoid Blockade: Telegram to Gorbachev.” The New York Times, April 16, 1990.

 

Zamascikov, Sergei. “The Red Army Fights for Its Life.” The Wall Street Journal, April 16, 1990.

 

Cooper, Kenneth J. “Trade Curb Suggested By Mitchell: Moscow Is Cautioned On Lithuania Threat.” The Washington Post, April 16, 1990.

 

“Chicken Vilnius.” New Republic, April 16, 1990.

 

Remnick, David. “Lithuania Offers Several Changes: Rights, Citizenship Compromises Signalled.” The Washington Post, April 16, 1990.

 

Brumberg, Abraham. “Lithuania – A Case for Compromise.” The Washington Post, April 17, 1990.

 

Devroy, Ann and David S. Broder. “Moscow Cautioned Against Embargo: Talks on Economic Issues Could Be Put at Risk, White House Says.” The Washington Post, April 17, 1990.

 

Danilenko, Victor. “Vilnius: Its Own Worst Enemy.” The New York Times, April 17, 1990.

 

Rosenthal, Andrew. “Bush Warns Moscow of U.S. Move Over Cut in Fuel for Lithuanians.” The New York Times, April 17, 1990.

 

Fein, Esther B. “Moscow Says Cuts in Energy Supplies to Lithuania Begin: Oil and Gas Embargoes.” The New York Times, April 17, 1990.

 

Dobbs, Michael. “Soviets Inform Lithuanians Of Cuts in Oil, Natural Gas.” The Washington Post, April 17, 1990.

 

Friedman, Thomas L. “U.S. Is Artfully Silent on Oil Threats to Lithuania.” The New York Times, April 18, 1990.

 

Fein, Esther B. “Lithuanians Say Moscow Has Cut Main Oil Pipeline: Growing Pressure.” The New York Times, April 18, 1990.

 

Devroy, Ann and Don Oberdorfer. “Bush: U.S. Would React to Soviet Cutoff in Lithuania: Response Would Be Calibrated to Degree of Economic Squeeze Put on Breakaway Republic.” The Washington Post, April 18, 1990.

 

Remnick, David. “Lithuanians Report Oil Is Cut Off: Vilnius Offers Pause In Laws to Gain Talks.” The Washington Post, April 18, 1990.

 

Evans, Rowland and Robert Novak. “A Hard Line on Lithuania.” The Washington Post, April 18, 1990.

 

“Text of Letter and Resolution by Lithuanians.” The New York Times, April 19, 1990.

 

Mossberg, Walter S. and Gerald F. Seib“As Tension Escalates Over Lithuania, Bush Faces Hard Choices: Public Doesn’t Want Unrest In Baltics to Block Summit Or U.S.-Soviet Detente.” The Wall Street Journal, April 19, 1990.

 

Apple, R.W., Jr. “Bush and Mitterrand Are Putting Moscow Ties Ahead of Lithuania.” The New York Times, April 19, 1990.

 

Fein, Esther B. “Toughening Stand, Moscow Cuts Back Gas For Lithuania: 3 of 4 Pipelines Closed.” The New York Times, April 19, 1990.

 

Dobbs, Michael. “Soviets Blame Vilnius For Energy Clampdown: Gorbachev Warns Estonians, Latvians.” The Washington Post, April 19, 1990.

 

Oberdorfer, Don and Ann Devroy. “Baker Details U.S. Response To Coercion.” The Washington Post, April 19, 1990.

 

Passell, Peter. “Soviets Hold All the Cards.” The New York Times, April 19, 1990.

 

Clines, Francis X. “Gorbachev’s Game: The Soviets Must Make Things Hard Or Risk More Calls for Independence.” The New York Times, April 20, 1990.

 

“Who Lost Gorbachev?” April 20, 1990.

 

Keller, Bill. “Lithuania Considers Delaying Full Independence: President Says Soviets View 2-Year Freeze as a Basis for Talks.” The New York Times, April 20, 1990.

 

Box 2

Folder 4

 

Landsbergis, Vytautas. “Should a Master-Slave Relationship Continue?” Los Angeles Times, April 21, 1990.

 

Oakes, John B. “Mr. Bush, Lean on the Lithuanians.” The New York Times, April 21, 1990.

 

Cody, Edward. “Europe Backs Lithuania, But Declines Direct Aid: Joint Reply Urges End to Soviet Blockade.” The Washington Post, April 21, 1990.

 

Dobbs, Michael. “Amid Standoff, Divisions in Moscow and Vilnius: Gorbachev Faced With Choice Between Subsidies to Help Unity and Economic Reform.” The Washington Post, April 21, 1990.

 

Kirkland, Lane. “AFL-CIO on Lithuania.” The New York Times, April 22, 1990.

 

Odell, Harry I. “A Sketchy Bit of Lithuanian History.” The Washington Post, April 22, 1990.

 

Goldman, Marshall I. “Gorbachev’s Other Crisis.” The New York Times, April 22, 1990.

 

“Lithuania Closes Most Industries: Acts to Conserve Fuel During Embargo by MoscowCompromise Is Sought.” The New York Times, April 22, 1990.

 

Friedman, Thomas L. “Why the U.S. Haas a Case of The Mumbles On Lithuania.” The New York Times, April 22, 1990.

 

Safire, William. “World to Vilnius: Suffer.” The New York Times, April 23, 1990.

 

“Soviet Party Official Denies Plans for Total Blockade of Lithuania.” The New York Times, April 23, 1990.

 

“New York Rally Backs Lithuania: 1,000 Protest at Soviet Office and March on 5th Avenue.” The New York Times, April 23, 1990.

 

Keller, Bill. “Sole Oil Refinery in Lithuania Shut by Soviet Embargo: Worse Hardship Feared.” The New York Times, April 23, 1990.

 

“Lithuania’s Sole Refinery Shuts Down: Secessionist Republic May Seek to Use Overseas Gold Deposits.” Associated Press, April 23, 1990.

 

Dionne, E.J Jr. “Americans Tepid Toward Lithuania.” The Washington Post, April 24, 1990.

 

MacFarquhar, Roderick. “King Canute’s Message to Gorbachev.” The New York Times, April 24, 1990.

 

Lewis, Flora. “Hold People Power.” The New York Times, April 24, 1990.

 

Rosenthal, Andrew. “Lithuania Action by Bush Expected: Suspension of One or More Sets of Talks With Soviets Is Reported an Option.” The New York Times, April 24, 1990.

 

“The Lithuanian Case.” The Washington Post, April 25, 1990.

 

Rosenthal, Andrew. “Bush Delays Action on Lithuania, Not Wanting to Harm Gorbachev.” The New York Times, April 25, 1990.

 

Remnick, David. “‘Bush Rejects Sanctions Over Lithuania: This Is Munich,’ Landsbergis Says.” The Washington Post, April 25, 1990.

 

Devroy, Ann and Don Oberdorfer. “Bush Rejects Sanctions Over Lithuania: Punishing Moscow Would be ‘Mistake’.” The Washington Post, April 25, 1990.

 

Buchert, Wendy. “Bush, Gorbachev trying to avoid head-on collision.” USA Today, April 25, 1990.

 

Reynolds, Barbara and Victor Nakas. “Topic: Lithuania’s Plight.” USA Today, April 25, 1990.

 

“The Bush Message to Vilnius: Talk.” The New York Times, April 25, 1990.

 

Buchanan, Patrick J. “Why are Bush and the establishment letting Lithuania down?” New York Post, April 25, 1990.

 

“Lithuania: U.S. ‘sold us out’.” USA Today, April 25, 1990.

 

Keller, Bill. “In Lithuania, a Soft Note Of Disquiet Starts to Rise.” The New York Times, April 26, 1990.

 

Riding, Alan. “Paris and Bonn Ask Lithuania to Halt Moves for a Break: Urge Talks with Soviets.” The New York Times, April 26, 1990.

 

Dobbs, Michael. “Lithuania Makes Plans To Circumvent Embargo: Republic Seeks Trade With Soviet Cities.” The Washington Post, April 26, 1990.

 

Dobbs, Michael. “Calm Eye of the Storm: Dreamy Days in Vilnius.” The Washington Post, April 26, 1990.

 

Cody, Edward. “Suspend Independence Bid, Bonn, Paris Urge Lithuania.” The Washington Post, April 26, 1990.

 

Kaletsky, Anatole. “A lonely road for Lithuania.” Financial Times, April 26, 1990.

 

Devroy, Ann and Helen Dewar. “Bush Brushes Off Criticism of Sanction Decision.” The Washington Post, April 26, 1990.

 

Orin, Deborah. “U.S. reaches tentative OK on trade with Sovs despite Lithuania.” New York Post, April 27, 1990.

 

Evans, Rowland and Robert Novak. “Dems Press Bush on Appeasement.” New York Post, April 27, 1990.

 

Tyrrell, R. Emmett Jr. “Lionized here, Gorbachev is Jimmy Carter II at home.” New York Post, April 27, 1990.

 

Christenson, Reo M. “Give Gorbachev Benefit of Doubt on Lithuania” [letter to the editor]. The New York Times, April 27, 1990.

 

Zvaners, Martins. “Forcibly Occupied” [letter to the editor]. The New York Times, April 27, 1990.

 

Herman, Louis Jay. “Ancient Declensions” [letter to the editor]. The New York Times, April 27, 1990.

 

Gigot, Paul A. “Gorbo Goes Out of Fashion In Washington.” The Wall Street Journal, April 27, 1990.

 

Keller, Bill. “Lithuania Reports Promising Contact with Soviet Aides: Compromise is Weighted.” The New York Times, April 27, 1990.

 

Berke, Richard L. “9 G.O.P. Senators Attack Bush on Lithuania.” The New York Times, April 27, 1990.

 

Remnick, David. “Possible Compromise Signaled by Kremlin: Paris-Bonn Proposal May Provide Basis.” The Washington Post, April 28, 1990.

 

Clines, Francis X. “Moscow Endorses Paris-Bonn Effort in Lithuania Crisis: Middle Ground Sought.” The New York Times, April 28, 1990.

 

Keller, Bill. “Lithuanians See Profit From Soviet Pressure.” The New York Times, April 28, 1990.

 

Dobbs, Michael. “Lithuanians Facing Economic Realities: Soviet Sanctions Spell Short-Term Disaster.” The Washington Post, April 29, 1990.

 

Dobbs, Michael. “Moscow Said to Hint End Of Embargo at 1 Plant: Lithuanian Firm Also Serves Soviet Market.” The Washington Post, April 29, 1990.

 

Keller, Bill. “For Lithuanian City, the Embargo Is No Reason to Lose Composure.” The New York Times, April 29, 1990.

 

Gumbel, Peter. “Lithuanians Try to Keep a Stiff Upper Lip: Soviet Squeeze Prompts Defianceand Reflection.” The Wall Street Journal, April 30, 1990.

 

“Latvian Citizens’ Group Demands Independence From Moscow.” Associated Press, April 30, 1990.

 

Farnsworth, Clyde H. “New U.S.-Soviet Trade Pact Stirs Criticism in Congress.” The New York Times, April 30, 1990.

 

Safire, William. “Repeal the Fourth Of July.” The New York Times, April 30, 1990.

 

Abrams, Elliott. “Bush’s Unrealpolitik.” The New York Times, April 30, 1990.

 

“Pedal for Independence.” The Washington Post, April 30, 1990.

 

“Toughen Up, Lithuanians Tell Bush.” The Wall Street Journal, April 30, 1990.

Hyland, William H. “A Formula for Baltic Independence: Both sides should revert to the 1939 status quo.” The Washington Post, April 30, 1990.

 

Box 2

Folder 5

 

Keller, Bill. “Gorbachev Jeered at May Day Rally.” The New York Times, May 1, 1990.

 

Rosenthal, Andrew. “Lithuanian Leader, on ‘Private’ Visit, to Meet Bush.” The New York Times, May 1, 1990.

 

“Lithuania Honoring New Martyr.” Associated Press, May 1, 1990.

 

Remnick, David. “Protesters Jeer Kremlin Leaders In May Day March.” The Washington Post, May 1, 1990.

 

“Gorbachev vs. Reform-I.” The Wall Street Journal, May 1, 1990.

 

Katell, Andrew. “Lithuanians To Consider Laws Freeze: Landsbergis Replies To Kohl, Mitterrand.” Associated Press, May 2, 1990.

 

“Latvians Unveil Transition Plan.” Associated Press, May 2, 1990.

 

Apple, R. W. Jr. “Did Bush Err on Lithuania? 12 Say He Didn’t.” The New York Times, May 2, 1990.

 

“Civil and Ethnic Unrest: Gorbachev vs. Reform-II.”The Wall Street Journal, n.d.

 

Rohatyn, Felix. “Lithuania v. The U.S.S.R.: How to Settle This ‘Divorce’.” May 3, 1990.

 

Dobbs, Michael. “Landsbergis Asks Latvians To Join Fight: Riga Legislature Expected To Vote for Independence.” The Washington Post, May 3, 1990.

 

“Latvian Parliament Votes To Move Toward Secession.”

 

Krauthammer, Charles. “Gorbachev’s Bottom Line.” The Washington Post, May 4, 1990.

 

McCombs, Phil. “Lithuania’s Dynamo For Democracy: Prime Minister Prunskiene, Charging Into Washington.” The Washington Post, May 4, 1990.

 

Fein, Esther B. “Latvia Lawmakers Move to Dissolve Links to Moscow: Complete Break Avoided.” The New York Times, May 4, 1990.

 

Dowd, Maureen. “Lithuania Premier Sees Bush, But There’s No Red Carpet.” The New York Times, May 4, 1990.

 

Dowd, Maureen. “Praise for Gorbachev From a Lithuanian Admirer.” The New York Times, May 4, 1990.

 

Gigot, Paul A. “LithuaniaSo Gallant, So Embarrassing.” The Wall Street Journal, May 4, 1990.

 

“Lithuania’s PM to Bush: ‘Good faith’ is not enough.” The Washington Post, May 5, 1990.

 

“Latvia joins crowd, votes for independence.” The Washington Post, May 5, 1990.

 

Evans, Rowland and Robert Novak. “Bush and the Lithuanians: good-cop, bad-cop strategy.” The Washington Post, May 5, 1990.

 

Dobbs, Michael. “Draft Dodging Season: Spring Is Time of Soviet Army Conscription; This Year, Thousands Are Refusing to Serve.” The Washington Post, May 6, 1990.

 

“Gorbachev Rejects Latvian Secession.” Associated Press, May 6, 1990.

 

Dobbs, Michael. “Soviets See Baltics as Strategically Vital: Coastline of Region Harbors Important Naval, Air Bases.” The Washington Post, n.d.

 

Dobbs, Michael. “Lithuania’s Pedantic Revolutionary.” The Washington Post, May 7, 1990.

 

Safire, William. “Policy With Purpose.” The New York Times, May 7, 1990.

 

“‘Latvia Is an Independent, Democratic Republic’.” May 7, 1990.

 

Evans, Rowland and Robert Novak. “Shadow on the Summit.” The Washington Post, May 7, 1990.

 

“No Embargo On Advice: The West urges Lithuania to slow down.” TIME, May 7, 1990.

 

Meyer, Stephen M. “The Army Isn’t Running Gorbachev.” The New York Times, May 8, 1990.

 

McGrory, Mary. “A Messy Divorce.” The Washington Post, May 8, 1990.

 

Whitney, Craig R. “Thatcher Urges Lithuanian To Compromise With Soviets.” The New York Times, May 9, 1990.

 

Dobbs, Michael. “Gorbachev Condemns Baltic Move: Secession Decisions Are Declared Illegal As Showdown Looms.” The Washington Post, May 14, 1990.

 

Bohlen, Celestine. “Gorbachev Bars Independence Bids of 2 Baltic Lands: No Sanctions Declared.” The New York Times, May 15, 1990.

 

Oberdorfer, Don. “Baltic Issue Is Raised in Baker Talks: U.S. Aides Link Crisis To Soviet Trade Gains.” The Washington Post, May 16, 1990.

 

Remnick, David. “Vilnius Offers to Suspend Laws: Lithuanian Move Conditioned on Moscow Opening Talks.”  The Washington Post, May 16, 1990.

 

Keller, Bill. “Lithuania Agrees to Suspend Laws on Independence: Strongest Overture Yet.” The New York Times, May 17, 1990.

 

“Excerpts From the Bush News Conference on Foreign and Domestic Issues.” The New York Times, May 17, 1990.

 

Dobbs, Michael. “Gorbachev Meets With Lithuanian: Prunskiene Calls Talks ‘Big Step Forward’.” The Washington Post, May 17, 1990.

 

Keller, Bill. “Gorbachev Meets With Lithuanian; ‘Big Step’ Is Cited.” The New York Times, May 17, 1990.

 

Keller, Bill. “Baker Said to Ask Vilnius to Suspend Independence Act: Talks with the Premier.” The New York Times, May 18, 1990.

 

Gelb, Leslie H. “Mr. Bush’s Backdoor Bombshells: Sending Signals Beyond the Media.” The New York Times, May 18, 1990.

 

Remnick, David. “Lithuanians Resist Bow To Moscow.” The Washington Post, May 19, 1990.

 

Fein, Esther B. “Lithuania Debates Gorbachev Demand.” The New York Times, May 20, 1990.

 

Rosenthal, A.M. “Who Needs Friends?” The New York Times, May 20, 1990.

 

“On the Summit Track.” The Washington Post, May 20, 1990.

 

Seib, Gerald F. “Bush Can’t Take Emboldened Congress For Granted in Agreements With Soviets.” The Wall Street Journal, May 21, 1990.

 

Oberdorfer, Don. “Baker Trip Leaves U.S. Officials Generally Optimistic on Summit.” The Washington Post, May 21, 1990.

 

Fein, Esther B. “Lithuanian Compromise With Moscow Unravels.” The New York Times, May 22, 1990.

 

Remnick, David. “Gas Sales Barred In Lithuanian Crisis: Moscow’s Pressure ‘Taking a Real Toll’.” The Washington Post, May 22, 1990.

 

“Lithuania’s Way Out.” The New York Times, May 22, 1990.

 

Evans, Rowland and Robert Novak. “Summit Blues.” The Washington Post, May 23, 1990.

 

Berrios-Martinez, Ruben. “Puerto RicoLithuania in Reverse?” The Washington Post, May 23, 1990.

 

Brumley, Brian. “Lithuania Makes Formal Offer to Suspend Independence Laws.” The Washington Post, May 23, 1990.

 

Fein, Esther B. “Gorbachev Offers Deal to Lithuania: Calls for Trade-Off Leading to Independence in 2 Years.” The New York Times, May 24, 1990.

 

Reagan, Ronald. “Communist Dominoes Are Falling.” The Wall Street Journal, May 24, 1990.

 

Remnick, David. “Lithuanians Encouraged By Talk With Gorbachev.” The Washington Post, May 24, 1990.

 

Valentine, Paul and Carlos Sanchez. “Baltic Americans Remember Heritage, Plan Demonstrations.” The Washington Post, May 29, 1990.

 

“Lithuania May Shut Soviet A-Station: Kremlin’s Blockade Could Force Cutoff of Power to Military Bases, Vilnius Warns.” The Washington Post, May 30, 1990.

 

Perle, Richard. “America’s Agenda Should Be Gorbachev’s, Too.” The New York Times, May 30, 1990.

 

Dobbs, Michael. “The Memory of Lithuania: For Former Foreign Minister, Echoes of Soviet Promises.” The Washington Post, May 30, 1990.

 

“Excerpts From Remarks by Gorbachev at the Soviet Embassy Luncheon.” June 1, 1990.

 

Mossberg, Walter S. and Gerald F. Seib. “As Tension Escalates Over Lithuania, Bush Faces Hard Choices.” The Wall Street Journal, n.d.

 

Garrett, Major and Paul M. Rodriguez. “Ten lawmakers to quiz Soviet leader for an hour.” The Washington Times, June 1, 1990.

 

Meyer, Cord. “Winds of independence.” The Washington Times, June 1, 1990.

 

Safire, William. “‘Weakness Is Strength.’” The New York Times, June 1, 1990.

 

Farnsworth, Clyde H. “Trade Accord Holds Many Prizes, But Obstacles to Passage Remain.” The New York Times, June 1, 1990.

 

Bohlen, Celestine. “2 Baltic Republics Appeal To Yeltsin for Cooperation.” The New York Times, June 1, 1990.

 

Apple. R.W., Jr. “Test of a Summit: Can Leaders Cling to the Right Track When Their Aims Remain at Odds?” The New York Times, June 1, 1990.

 

Rosenthal, Andrew. “Bush and Gorbachev Sign Major Accords on Missiles, Chemical Weapons and Trade.” The New York Times, June 1, 1990.

 

Lithuanian World Community. “Mr. Gorbachev, you’re no Joseph Stalin.” N.d.

 

Dobbs, Michael. “Lithuania, Russia Weigh Trade Links.” The Washington Post, June 1, 1990.

 

Keller, Bill. “Bush and Gorbachev Work on Trust at Camp David: Rapport Growing as Leaders Face German Issue.” The New York Times, June 2, 1990.

 

Rasky, Susan F. “U.S. Lawmakers Tie Soviet Trade Pact to Kremlin Progress on Lithuania.” The New York Times, June 2, 1990.

 

Priest, Dana and Bill Dedman. “The Hunt for the Man In the Long Black Zil.” The Washington Post, June 2, 1990.

 

Leff, Lisa. “Disappointed Lithuanians Demonstrate: Bush Didn’t Press For Baltics, They Say.” The Washington Post, June 3, 1990.

 

D’Amato. “Lithuanian Injustices” [letter to the editor]. The New York Times, June 3, 1990.

 

Rosenthal, Andrew. “Summit Talks End With Warmth but Fail to Resolve Key Issues.” The New York Times, June 4, 1990.

 

“Summit Assessment.” The Washington Post, June 4, 1990.

 

Evans, Rowland and Robert Novak. “My Pal, Mikhail.” The Washington Post, June 4, 1990.

 

Hoagland, Jim. “Political Leadership, Political Violence.” The Washington Post, June 4, 1990.

 

Hoffman, David. “Bush and Gorbachev Proclaim Cooperation But Fail to Agree on Germany, Lithuania.” The Washington Post, June 4, 1990.

 

“Key Sections From the Bush-Gorbachev News Conference.” The New York Times, June 4, 1990.

 

Perle, Richard. “U.S. Sellout at the Summit.” The New York Times, June 6, 1990.

 

Balz, Dan. “Hills Leaders Offer Bush Support on Soviet Trade Treaty: But Strong Opposition Could Surface Unless Lithuanian Economic Blockade Is Eased.” The Washington Post, June 6, 1990.

 

“One, Two, Many Lithuanians.” June 7, 1990.

 

Rosenthal, A.M. “Warmth and Ice.” The New York Times, June 7, 1990.

 

Keller, Bill. “In Possible Compromise, Moscow Is Said to Invite Lithuanian.” The New York Times, June 11, 1990.

 

Remnick, David. “Gorbachev to Meet With Baltic Leaders: Republics’ Independence to Be Discussed.” The Washington Post, June 11, 1990.

 

Keller, Bill. “Moscow Lays Out Terms for Baltics.” The New York Times, June 12, 1990.

 

Rosenthal, Andrew. “Bush Sees ‘Significant Change’ in Baltic Standoff.” The New York Times, June 13, 1990.

 

Remnick, David. “Lithuanians Say Kremlin Vows to East Sanctions: Soviets, Baltic Leaders Move Toward Talks on Independence.” The Washington Post, June 13, 1990.

 

Clines, Francis X. “Moscow Loosens Economic Sanction Against Lithuania: Modest Increase In Fuel.” The New York Times, June 13, 1990.

 

McAllister, Bill. “Gorbachev: France Also Didn’t Grant Independence ‘Overnight.’” The Washington Post, n.d.

 

“Deadlock on Lithuania Is Broken at Talks; Supreme Soviet Compromises on Economy.” The Wall Street Journal, June 14, 1990.

 

Lewis, Anthony. “Bush Vindicated.” The New York Times, June 15, 1990.

 

Clines, Francis X. “Lithuania Leaders Offer to Suspend Independence Step: Urge Parliament to Act.” The New York Times, June 16, 1990.

 

Goldberg, Carey. “Lithuania Offers Plan For Talks: Cabinet Urges Freeze On Independence.” The Washington Post, June 16, 1990.

 

Imse, Ann. “Lithuanian Premier Promotes Compromise.” The Washington Post, June 26, 1990.

 

“Lithuanians Debating a Freeze on Independence.” The New York Times, June 28, 1990.

 

Keller, Bill. “Lithuania Agrees to 100-Day Delay on Independence.” The New York Times, June 29, 1990.

 

Clines, Francis X. “Soviets Open Line for Lithuania Oil to Help End Crisis: 16-week Impasse is Over.” The New York Times, June 30, 1990.

 

Lee, Gary. “Baltic Leaders Reject Role In New Soviet Confederation.” The Washington Post, July 28, 1990.

 

Evans, Rowland and Robert Novak. “All bets on Gorbachev?” The Washington Post, August 1, 1990.

 

Keresztes, Peter. “Lithuania to U.S.: Don’t Sell Us Out.” The Wall Street Journal, September 11, 1990.

 

Evans, Rowland and Robert Novak. “Listening to Yeltsin” The Washington Post, September 12, 1990.

 

Budris, John. “To Oslo, Via Vilnius.” The New York Times, October 17, 1990.

 

Richmond, Nathaniel. “Gorbachev Steers Middle Course on Lithuania” [letter to the editor]. The New York Times, November 4, 1990.

 

Damusis, Ginte. “‘Your Excellency’” [letter to the editor]. The New York Times, November 4, 1990.

 

Altstadt, Audrey L. “Peace Mocked” [letter to the editor]. The New York Times, November 4, 1990.

 

Turgeon, Lynn. “Subsidy and Separatism” [letter to the editor]. The New York Times, November 4, 1990.

 

“Freedom Soon for the Baltics.” The New York Times, December 10, 1990.

 

Horne, A.D. “Soviets Said to Threaten Supply Cutoff in Baltics: Lithuanian President Cites New Ultimatum.” The Washington Post, December 12, 1990.

 

Gigot, Paul A. “Billions for Gorby; Bum’s Rush For the Baltics.” The Wall Street Journal, December 14, 1990.

 

Series 3: Newspaper Clippings, January 7, 1991-September 17, 1991

 

Box 3

Folder 1

 

Whitney, Craig. “Moscow Is Sending Troops to Baltics to Enforce Draft: Elite Units Told to Move.” The New York Times, January 7, 1991.

 

Kelam, Tunne and Mari-Ann Rikken. “Selling Out the Baltics.” The New York Times, January 8, 1991.

 

Fein, Esther B. “Lithuanian Premier Resigns Over Policy.” The New York Times, January 8, 1991.

 

Rosenthal, Andrew. “U.S. Deplores Plan by Soviets to Send Troops to Baltics: Calls Efforts to Enforce Draft There and in Four Other Areas ‘Intimidation.’” The New York Times, January 8, 1991.

 

Remnick, David. “Prunskiene Resigns As Lithuanian Premier: Move Follows Defeat of Price Reform Plan.” The Washington Post, January 9, 1991.

 

Oberdorfer, Don. “Soviets, Baltic States Appear to Be on Collision Course.” The Washington Post, January 9, 1991.

 

Dobbs, Michael. “Moscow Backers Ring Lithuanian Congress: Soviet Troops Surround Vilnius TV Tower.” The Washington Post, January 9, 1991.

 

“Soviets Say a Budget Accord With Republics Is Set to Sign.” The New York Times, January 9, 1991.

 

Pedak-Kari, Maria. “Gorbachev and the Baltic Republics” [letter to the editor]. The Washington Post, n.d.

 

Whitney, Craig R. “Protests in Lithuania Continue, Turning Peaceful.” The New York Times, January 9, 1991.

 

Keller, Bill. “Gorbachev Warns The Lithuanians to Halt Defiance: He Hints at Direct Rule.” The New York Times, January 10, 1991.

 

Dobbs, Michael. “Gorbachev Warns Lithuania To Restore Soviet Laws.” The Washington Post, January 11, 1991.

 

Keller, Bill. “Soviet Army Raids Lithuania Offices: 7 Are Hurt in Show of Force, Kremlin’s Strongest Move.” The New York Times, January 12, 1991.

 

Remnick, David. “Gorbachev’s Cabinet Sends Pair to Lithuania to Probe Clashes.” The Washington Post, January 12, 1991.

 

Wines, Michael. “Bush Deplores Soviet Crackdown But Takes No Steps in Response.” The New York Times, January 12, 1991.

 

Apple, R.W., Jr. “Bush’s Fateful Days: Lithuania Crisis Complicates Matters For President as Gulf Deadline Nears.” The New York Times, January 13, 1991.

 

Riding, Alan. “Europeans Warn Soviet About Aid: Out of Concern for Lithuania, a Threat to Bar $1 Billion Promised to Moscow.” The New York Times, January 13, 1991.

 

Whitney, Craig R. “Georgians View Lithuania And Fear They Are Next.” The New York Times, January 13, 1991.

 

Tagliabue, John. “In Germany a Feeling Of Shock at Crackdown.” The New York Times, January 13, 1991.

 

Fein, Esther B. “In the Baltics, the Red Army Is a Red-Flag Issue.” The New York Times, January 13, 1991.

 

Dobbs, Michael. “Soviet Troops in Lithuania Launch Attack on TV Tower.” The Washington Post, January 13, 1991.

 

Keller, Bill. “At Least 8 Dead as Soviet Tanks Roll in Lithuania: Troops Attack Vilnius’s Main Television and Radio Complex.” The New York Times, January 13, 1991.

 

“Gorbachev’s Era at Risk: Leader Is Held Accountable for Vilnius.” The Washington Post, January 13, 1991.

 

“Baltic Lands: 50 Years of Turmoil and Strife.” The New York Times, January 14, 1990.

 

Keller, Bill. “Soviet Loyalists in Charge After Attack in Lithuania, 13 Killed; Crowds Defiant.” The New York Times, January 14, 1991.

 

Clines, Francis X. “Moscow Protesters Denounce Attack in Lithuania as Kremlin Keeps Silent.” The New York Times, January 14, 1991.

 

Dobbs, Michael. “Lithuanians Blaming Gorbachev For Military Crackdown in Vilnius: Leaders of Republic Cite Detailed Planning of Army Action.” The Washington Post, January 14, 1991.

 

Fisher, Marc. “Western Aid to Gorbachev In Jeopardy, Say Europeans: Czechoslovakia Seeking to Assist Vilnius.” The Washington Post, January 14, 1991.

 

“President’s Remarks on Baltic States: ‘No Justification for The Use of Force.’” The Washington Post, January 14, 1990.

 

“Bush Statement on Lithuania.” The New York Times, January 14, 1991.

 

Dobbs, Michael. “Army Agrees To Hold Fire In Vilnius.” The Washington Post, January 14, 1990.

 

Oberdorfer, Don and Ann Devroy. “Bush Decries Action, Sees Effect on Ties.” The Washington Post, January 14, 1990.

 

“Death in Lithuania.” January 14, 1990.

 

Goldman, Ari L. “For Lithuanian-Americans, the News About Home Seems Terrible Indeed.” The New York Times, January 14, 1991.

 

Safire, William. “Gorby’s Black Berets.” The New York Times, January 14, 1991.

 

“The New Old Face of Tyranny.” The New York Times, January 14, 1991.

 

Whitney, Craig R. “Gorbachev Puts Blame for Clash On Lithuanians.” The New York Times, January 14, 1991.

 

Keller, Bill. “Yield Independence Claim or Face Worse Strife, Lithuanians Warned.” The New York Times, January 14, 1991.

 

Clines, Francis X. “Disarray in Moscow: Vilnius Crackdown Raises Questions On Who Leads Nation and to Where.” The New York Times, January 14, 1991.

 

Whitney, Craig R. “The Kremlin Revives an Old Refrain.” The New York Times, January 14, 1991.

 

Dowd, Maureen. “White House Sticks to Its Subdued Reaction to Baltic Crackdown.” The New York Times, January 14, 1991.

 

Fein, Esther B. “Credibility, Too, Is a Victim Of the Repression in Vilnius.” The New York Times, January 14, 1991.

 

Engelberg, Stephen. “At the Frontier, No Sign of Exodus: Expected Flood of Refugees Does Not Materialize Jobs Are Top Factor.” The New York Times, January 14, 1991.

 

Dobbs, Michael. “Soviet Troops in Vilnius Seize 2 Radio Buildings: Lithuanian Leader Talks by Phone With Gorbachev.” The Washington Post, January 14, 1991.

 

Remnick, David. “General Ordered Attack, Gorbachev Announces: Soviet President Displays No Regret.” The Washington Post, January 14, 1991.

 

Oberdorfer, Don and Ann Devroy. “February Summit Is ‘Up in the Air: White House Assessing Gorbachev’s Role in Military Crackdown in Lithuania.’” The Washington Post, n.d.

 

Rosenthal, A.M. “The New World Order Dies.” The New York Times, January 15, 1991.

 

Milosz, Czeslaw. “Moscow’s Poisoned Tomato.” The New York Times, January 15, 1991.

 

“No Aid for a Repressive Moscow.” The New York Times, January 15, 1991.

 

Hoagland, Jim. “Gorbachev: The Bitter Reality.” The Washington Post, January 15, 1991.

 

Clines, Francis X. “Wider Soviet Crackdown Is Foreseen in the Baltics.” The New York Times, January 15, 1991.

 

Dobbs, Michael. “Outcome of Struggle in Lithuania Seen Affecting Entire Soviet Union: At Stake Is Country’s Democratic Experiment, Ties With West.” The Washington Post, January 15, 1991.

 

Dobbs, Michael. “Baltic Communists Target Legislatures: Gorbachev Says He Is Inundated With Appeals to Restore Order.” The Washington Post, January 15, 1991.

 

Kristof, Nicholas D. “Few Hearts in Beijing Go Out To Lithuanians in Crackdown.” The New York Times, January 15, 1991.

 

Whitney, Craig R. “Moscow Appoints Foreign Minister: Bessmertnykh, Envoys to U.S., Succeeds ShevardnadzeGood Ties Are Pledged.” The New York Times, January 15, 1991.

 

Keller, Bill. “The Crushing of Lithuania’s Independence Drive: A Precise Script Is Detected.” The New York Times, January 15, 1991.

 

“Lithuania Is Not Alone.” January 16, 1991.

 

Laber, Jeri and Catherine Cosman. “A ‘Gorbachev Doctrine’ Takes Shape.” January 16, 1991.

 

Dobbs, Michael. “Throngs of Lithuanians Mourn Sunday’s Victims.” The Washington Post, January 16, 1991.

 

Keller, Bill. “Lithuanian Dead Buried as ‘Martyrs.’” The New York Times, January 16, 1991.

 

Clines, Francis X. “Latvia’s Leader Tries to Placate the Kremlin.” The New York Times, January 16, 1991.

 

Fein, Esther B. “Gorbachev Urges Curb on Press Freedom.” The New York Times, January 16, 1991.

 

Safire, William. “Gorbachev’s ‘Bloody Sunday.’” The New York Times, January 17, 1991.

 

Remnick, David. “Gorbachev, Angered by Vilnius Reports, Tries to Curb Media.” The Washington Post, January 17, 1991.

 

Oberdorfer, Don. “Senate Seeks to Curb U.S.-Soviet Ties: Bush Urged to Halt Economic Moves After Crackdown in Baltics.” The Washington Post, January 17, 1991.

 

“Broken Glasnost.” The New York Times, January 17, 1991.

 

Whitney, Craig R. “Gorbachev’s Limits: Censorship on Army in Baltics Means Glasnost Is Not Public Accountability.” The New York Times, January 17, 1991.

 

Clines, Francis X. “A Gorbachev Call Lifts Latvia Hope: Friendlier Tone Eases Fear of a Brutal Crackdown, but Harassment Goes On.” The New York Times, January 17, 1991.

 

Keller, Bill. “Soviets Insist They Won’t Use Force to Unseat Lithuanians.” The New York Times, January 17, 1991.

 

Binder, David. “Baltic Crackdown Angers Congress: Lawmakers Ask White House to Take Steps to Punish Kremlin for Actions. The New York Times, January 17, 1991.

 

Dobbs, Michael. “Lithuanian Parliament Called Safe From Attack: General Says Army Won’t Storm Building.” The Washington Post, January 17, 1991.

 

Remnick, David. “Former Gorbachev Advisers Condemn Leadership as ‘Criminal.’” The Washington Post, January 18, 1991.

 

Rosenfeld, Stephen S. “Rite of Russia.” The Washington Post, January 18, 1991.

 

Oberdorfer, Don. “Moscow Warned on Baltic Repression: U.S., in Tough Statement, Says Cooperation May Be Curtailed.” The Washington Post, January 18, 1991.

 

Clines, Francis X. “Lithuanians, Improvising, Resume TV Broadcasts.” The New York Times, January 18, 1991.

 

Whitney, Craig R. “Gorbachev Draws Ex-Backers’ Rage.” The New York Times, January 18, 1991.

 

Yevtushenko, Yevgeny. “‘Mud and Blood Are Sisters.’” The New York Times, January 19, 1991.

 

Remnick, David. “Pro-Moscow Group Lays Claim to Power in Latvia.” The Washington Post, January 19, 1991.

 

Keller, Bill. “Garrison Seethes as Its Town Grows Independent of Russia.” The New York Times, January 19, 1991.

 

Schmemann, Serge. “Further Pressure Is Put on Latvia: Soviet Press Reports Move by a ‘Salvation’ Committee Similar to Lithuania’s.” The New York Times, January 19, 1991.

 

Dobbs, Michael. “Soviet Troops in Lithuania Tense, Angry, Embittered by Their Lot.” The Washington Post, January 20, 1991.

 

Masters, Brooke A. “150 Protest At Soviet Embassy: D.C. Pickets Decry ‘Shame’ in Lithuania.” The Washington Post, January 20, 1991.

 

Schmemann, Serge. “100,000 in Moscow Protest Crackdown.” The New York Times, January 20, 1991.

 

Schmemann, Serge. “Is the ‘Liberation’ of Lithuania The Death Notice for Reform?” The New York Times, January 20, 1991.

 

Will, George F. “A Regime of Force and Fraud.” The Washington Post, January 20, 1991.

 

Clines, Francis X. “In Tense, Fearful Lithuania, a Bride and Groom Exchange Hopeful Vows.” The New York Times, January 20, 1991.

 

Remnick, David. “Lithuanians Display Their defiance, Grief.” The Washington Post, January 20, 1991.

 

Klose, Kevin. “After the Assault in Vilnius, Gorbachev’s Move to the Right Forces the Bush Administration To Face a Difficult Choice.” The Washington Post, January 20, 1991.

 

Box 3

Folder 2

 

Boulton, Leyla. “Lithuanians set for long siege.” January 21, 1991.

 

Dobbs, Michael. “Soviet Forces Seize Ministry In Latvia, Killing 4 in Attack: Moscow Demonstrators Demand Gorbachev’s Resignation.” The Washington Post, January 21, 1991.

 

Schmemann, Serge. “Soviet Commandos Stage Latvia Raid; At Least 5 Killed: Kremlin’s Role Unclear.” The New York Times, January 21, 1991.

 

Hatch, Orrin G. “Put Moscow in a Deep Freeze.” The New York Times, January 21, 1991.

 

Dobbs, Michael. “Yeltsin Asks Action by Republics: Russian Leader Says Common Enemy Is Totalitarianism.” The Washington Post, January 21, 1991.

 

“Gorbachev Confirms Nobel Speech.” The Washington Post, January 21, 1991.

 

Remnick, David. “Embattled Latvia Girds for New Soviet Attacks.” The Washington Post, January 21, 1991.

 

Binder, David. “Bush Appeals to Kremlin Leaders To Refrain From Force in Baltics.” The Washington Post, January 21, 1991.

 

Whitney, Craig R. “Moscow’s Iron Hand: Gorbachev, Facing Growing Disorder, Chooses Control Over Liberalization.” The New York Times, January 21, 1991.

 

Clines, Francis X. “Latvia to Create Self-Defense Unit: Republic’s Parliament Takes Step After Deadly Attack by Soviet Commandos.” The New York Times, January 21, 1991.

 

Riding, Alan. “European Nations Prepare to Impose Sanctions on Moscow.” The New York Times, January 21, 1991.

 

Oberdorfer, Don. “White House Rebuffs American Baltic Leaders.” The Washington Post, n.d.

 

Oberdorfer, Don and Ann Devroy. “Bush Expresses Increasing Concern About Developments in Baltic States.” The Washington Post, January 22, 1991.

 

Kissinger, Henry. “No Illusions About the U.S.S.R.” Los Angeles Times, January 22, 1991.

 

Dobbs, Michael. “Gorbachev Faults Republics for Deaths: Kremlin Leader Orders Invalidation of Largest Ruble Notes.” The Washington Post, January 22, 1991.

 

Binder, David. “Baltic Officials Meet With Baker And Congressional Panel on Crisis.” The New York Times, January 22, 1991.

 

Riding, Alan. “Baltic Assaults Lead Europeans To Hold Off Aid.” The New York Times, January 22, 1991.

 

Clines, Francis X. “Lithuania Feels Betrayed by ‘Bad King’ Gorbachev.” The New York Times, January 22, 1991.

 

Schmemann, Serge. “Gorbachev Denies Any Shift Away From Liberalization.” The New York Times, January 22, 1991.

 

Remnick, David. “Baltic Leaders React Warily To Gorbachev: Latvian Leader Cites ‘Constructive’ Talks.” The Washington Post, January 22, 1991.

 

Drozdiak, William. “European Parliament Holds Up Soviet Food Aid: Vote in Strasbourg, Blocking $1 Billion, Protests Use of Force in Baltic Republics.” The Washington Post, January 23, 1991.

 

Szporluk, Roman. “The Soviet Union Has Ceased to Exist.” The New York Times, January 23, 1991.

 

“Soviet Repressionand Courage.” The New York Times, January 23, 1991.

 

Remnick, David. “The Voice of Resistance: From Gardening to 24-Hour News At Small Lithuanian TV Station.” The Washington Post, January 23, 1991.

 

Remnick, David. “Soviets Seize Warehouse For Lithuania’s Paper: Move Appears Aimed at Newsprint Supply.” The Washington Post, January 23, 1991.

 

Bohlen, Celestine. “Eastern Europe Treads Softly on the Baltic Issue.” The New York Times, January 23, 1991.

 

Binder, David. “White House Quandary In Relations With Kremlin.” The New York Times, January 23, 1991.

 

Clines, Francis X. “Stalemate In Baltics: Did Soviet Leader Botch Crackdown?” The New York Times, January 23, 1991.

 

Dobbs, Michael. “Bid to Censure Kremlin on Baltics Fails in Russia’s Legislature.” The Washington Post, January 24, 1991.

 

Rosenthal, Andrew. “Bush Said to Lean Toward Summit Delay.” The New York Times, January 24, 1991.

 

Safire, William. “The Other War.” The New York Times, January 24, 1991.

 

“Counterrevolution in Moscow.” January 24, 1991.

 

Scammell, Michael. “Communism’s Last True Believer.” The New York Times, January 25, 1991.

 

Dewar, Helen. “Senate Hits Soviet Action In the Baltics: Bush Urged to Weigh Economic Pressure.” The Washington Post, January 25, 1991.

 

Sturua, Melor. “The Lithuanian Domino.” The Washington Post, January 25, 1991.

 

Friedman, Thomas L. “U.S. Is Called Set to Urge Summit Delay.” The New York Times, January 26, 1991.

 

Broder, David S. “Timidity On the Baltics.” The Washington Post, January 26, 1991.

 

Roziner, Felix. “Lithuania’s President a genuine Democrat” [letter to the editor]. The New York Times, January 27, 1991.

 

Evans, Rowland and Robert Novak. “Bush’s Blind Eye and the Baltics.” The Washington Post, January 27, 1991.

 

Oberdorfer, Don. “United States Encounters Dilemma With Moscow: Washington Wants to Criticize Gorbachev’s Domestic Policies Without Harming Relationship.” The Washington Post, January 27, 1991.

 

Friedman, Thomas L. “U.S. and Moscow Postpone Summit: Both Sides Cite Gulf War and Unfinished Arms Treaty, Not Baltic Crackdown.” The New York Times, January 28, 1991.

 

Cooperman, Alan. “Pro-Moscow Police Jeer Latvian Leader: Soviet Forces Reportedly Storm Two Lithuanian Customs Posts.” The Washington Post, January 29, 1991.

 

Oberdorfer, Don and Ann devroy. “Bush and Gorbachev Postpone Summit: Moscow Meeting Off Until Sometime Before End of June; Gulf War, Arms Treaty Cited.” The Washington Post, January 29, 1991.

 

Oberdorfer, Don. “Moscow Seeks Steady Course In Diplomacy: ‘Soothing Approach’ Taken on the Baltics.” The Washington Post, n.d.

 

Remnick, David. “Soviet Opposition Plans Civil Disobedience: Russian Republic Also Protests Kremlin Order for Joint Police-Military Patrols.” The Washington Post, January 29, 1991.

 

Kasparov, Gary. “The Lingeringand FatalGorbachev Illusion.” The Wall Street Journal, January 30, 1991.

 

Dobbs, Michael. “Troops Leaving Baltics, Soviets Say: Lithuanians Report Convoys Leaving but Skeptical on Withdrawal.” The Washington Post, January 31, 1991.

 

Clines, Francis X. “Gorbachev, Easing Baltic Stand, Offers Talks on Republic’s Future.” The New York Times, February 1, 1991.

 

Clines, Francis X. “Vilnius Tense as Rivals Patrol Streets.” The New York Times, February 2, 1991.

 

Drozdiak, William. “Genscher Calls on Gorbachev To Ignore ‘Reactionary Forces.’” The Washington Post, February 3, 1991.

 

Remnick, David. “Former Soviet Dissidents Organizing for New Fight: Activists See Urgent Need for Vigilance.” The Washington Post, February 3, 1991.

 

Safire, William. “Congress to the Rescue.” The New York Times, February 4, 1991.

 

Budris, John. “Iceland Puts the West to Shame on Baltics” [letter to the editor]. The New York Times, February 4, 1991.

 

Harrington, R. Ward. “The Bigger Picture” [letter to the editor]. The New York Times, February 4, 1991.

 

Kirkpatrick, Jeane. “Three Views Of the U.S.S.R.” Los Angeles Times, February 4, 1991.

 

Evans, Rowland and Robert Novak. “Gloom in Moscow: Anti-Leninists agree that a return to dictatorship is being attempted.” The Washington Post, February 4, 1991.

 

Oberdorfer, Don. “U.S. Sending Medical Supplies Directly to Beleaguered Baltics.” The Washington Post, n.d.

 

Remnick, David. “Gorbachev Declares Lithuanian Vote Illegal: Nonbinding Independence Poll Still Set for Saturday; Police-Military Patrols Increased.” The Washington Post, February 5, 1991.

 

Schmemann, Serge. “Gorbachev to Disregard Lithuanian Vote.” The New York Times, February 6, 1991.

 

Schmemann, Serge. “Shadow of Moscow Darkens Lithuania Independence Vote.” The New York Times, February 6, 1991.

 

Dobbs, Michael. “President Launches Campaign For Referendum, Assails Baltics.” The Washington Post, February 6, 1991.

 

Clines, Francis X. “Gorbachev Sees Threat to Soviet Status.” The New York Times, February 6, 1991.

 

Rosenthal, Andrew. “Baltics and Ukraine to Get U.S. Medical Aid.” The New York Times, February 6, 1991.

 

Shlaes, Amity. “Baltic Stronghold: Envoys Fight Storm of History.” The Wall Street Journal, n.d.

 

Dobbs, Michael. “Baltic Crackdown Leaves Gorbachev With Room to Manevuer.” The Washington Post, February 9, 1991.

 

Maass, Peter. “Lithuanians Vote for Secession: Troops Set Exercises As Non-Binding Poll Defies Gorbachev.” The Washington Post, February 9, 1991.

 

Clines, Francis X. “Lithuanians Vote in a Referendum on Independence: Turnout Is Called Heavy.” The New York Times, February 9, 1991.

 

Schmemann, Serge. “More Bolts From the Blue Man In Moscow.” The New York Times, February 10, 1991.

 

Remnick, David. “Gorbachev, Yeltsin Accord Based on Mutual Needs.” The Washington Post, April 26, 1991.

 

Gugliotta, Guy. “Senate Backing for Grain Deal Stalls Amid Repayment, Repression Worries.” The Washington Post, May 8, 1991.

 

Yang, John E. “President Seeking Way to Help Gorbachev Ease Food Shortage.”  The Washington Post, May 9, 1991.

 

Safire, William. “Landsbergis for Nobel Laureate.” The New York Times, May 9, 1991.

 

Fein, Esther B. “Baltic Crackdown Backed in Report: Official Soviet Inquiry Blames Lithuanians for January Violence at TV Station.” The New York Times, June 3, 1991.

 

Dobbs, Michael. “Report Exonerates Soviet Troops in Vilnius Killings.” The Washington Post, June 3, 1991.

 

Hoffman, David. “Political-Economic Shift Is Key to Soviet Rescue: U.S. Officials Stressing Reforms, Not Aid.” The Washington Post, June 4, 1991.

 

Engelberg, Stephen. “Pope Subtly Offers Moral Support For Lithuanians’ Independence.” The New York Times, June 5, 1991.

 

“Lithuanians Clash With Soviet Force: One Killed in Gunfight Near the Republic’s Parliament.” The New York Times, August 21, 1991.

 

Binder, David. “Baltics’ Campaign Is Gaining In West: U.S., Germany, Denmark and Sweden Urge Sovereignty but Make No Demand.” The New York Times, August 22, 1991.

 

Keller, Bill. “Purge of Military.” The New York Times, August 25, 1991.

 

Kamm, Henry. “3 Nordic Lands Act: Argentina Joins In, and Germany and theU.S. Prepare Relations.” The New York Times, August 25, 1991.

 

Clymer, Adam. “Baltics’ Allies Find Backing In Congress.” The New York Times, August 25, 1991.

 

Rosenthal, Andrew. “Bush Holding Off on Ties to Baltics: Aim Apparently Remains Not to Undermine Gorbachev.” The New York Times, August 26, 1991.

 

Rosenthal, Andrew. “A Mosiac of Motives: The West’s Response to Baltic Quest for Independence.” The New York Times, August 27, 1991.

 

Greenhouse, Steven. “A Gain for Baltics: European Governments Recognize Republics as Fully Sovereign.” The New York Times, August 27, 1991.

 

Bohlen, Celestine. “New Pact Is Sought: Leaders of Key Regions Say They’ll Work for Revised Federation.” The New York Times, August 27, 1991.

 

Kinzer, Stephen. “Lithuanians Free of Soviet Draft: Vital Concession Makes Clear That Moscow Is Accepting Baltics’ Independence.” The New York Times, August 28, 1991.

 

“The Right Way to Baltic Freedom.” The New York Times, August 29, 1991.

 

Safire, William. “After the Fall.” The New York Times, August 29, 1991.

 

Misiunas, Romuald J. “The Baltics Were Prepared.” N.d.

 

Keller, Bill. “Debate Expected on Transition and Baltics.” The New York Times, August 31, 1991.

 

Kinzer, Stephen. “Freedom for Lithuania Means New Challenges.” The New York Times, August 31, 1991.

 

Rosenthal, Andrew. “Aides Say Bush Is Ready to Grant Recognition to Baltics Tomorrow.” The New York Times, August 31, 1991.

 

Randolph, Eleanor. “Lithuanians Quietly Take Credit For Baltics’ Impending Freedom: Tiny, Stalwart Republic Was First to Stand Up to Soviet Union.” The Washington Post, September 1, 1991.

 

Seib, Gerald F. “U.S. Recognizes Independence of Baltics After Delay in Deference to Gorbachev.” The Wall Street Journal, September 3, 1991.

 

Kinzer, Stephen. “Lithuania Starts to Wipe Out Convictions for War Crimes.” The New York Times, September 4, 1991.

 

“Excerpts From Statement On Independence for Baltics.” The New York Times, September 6, 1991.

 

Schmemann, Serge. “New Council Meets: Leningrad Officially Gets Back Its Old Name, St. Petersburg.” The New York Times, September 7, 1991.

 

Hoffman, David. “Baker Hears Baltic Leaders’ Fears: U.S. Know-How Sought as States Adapt to Independence.” The Washington Post, September 14, 1991.

 

Rowe, Trevor. “U.N. Body Opens 46th Session: Baltic States, North and South Korea Admitted to General Assembly.” The Washington Post, September 17, 1991.

 

Stanley, Alessandra. “Baltic Countries Are Admitted to U.N. Assembly.” The New York Times, September 17, 1991.

 

Series 4: Magazine Articles, January 21, 1990-September 9, 1991

 

Box 3

Folder 3

 

Smolowe, Jill. “And Now, Divorce?” TIME, January 22, 1990.

 

Watson, Russell, et al. “Getting Out of the U.S.S.R.?” Newsweek, January 22, 1990.

 

Anderson, Harry, et al. “‘The Same Old Music.’” Newsweek, January 22, 1990.

 

Anderson, Harry, et al. “‘A Time of Testing.” Newsweek, March 26, 1990.

 

Bogert, Carroll. “Lithuania’s Little Revolution.” Newsweek, March 26, 1990.

 

Aslund, Anders. “Is Gorbachev Ready to Cut His Losses?” Newsweek, March 26, 1990.

 

Kohan, John. “Nothing Less Than a Coup.” TIME, March 26, 1990.

 

Anderson, Harry, et al. “The War of Nerves.” Newsweek, April 2, 1990.

 

Martz, Larry, et al. “Weighing the RisksAnd Laying the Blame.” Newsweek, April 2, 1990.

 

Coleman, Fred. “Gorbachev’s Next Crisis.” Newsweek, April 2, 1990.

 

Serrill, Michael S. “War of Nerves.” TIME, April 2, 1990.

 

“The Man Who Is Playing for Time.” TIME, April 2, 1990.

 

“The grip on Lithuania.” The Economist, April 21, 1990.

 

“Back the Baltics.” The New Republic, April 23, 1990.

 

Kohan, John. “Running Out Of Gas?” TIME, April 30, 1990.

 

Beyer, Lisa, et al. “Why the Western Powers Are Right to Tread Carefully.” TIME, April 30, 1990.

 

Coleman, Fred. “‘The People Want to Get Rid of Communism.’” Newsweek, May 14, 1990.

 

“Independence With a Breathing Space.” Newsweek, May 14, 1990.

 

Trimble, Jeff, et al. “The meddlesome musicologist.” U.S. News & World Report, May 14, 1990.

 

Walsh, James. “The Iron Fist.” TIME, January 21, 1991.

 

Talbott, Strobe. “A Storm Erupts.” TIME, January 28, 1991.

 

Nelan, Bruce W. “The Bad Old Days Again.” TIME, January 28, 1991.

 

Kohan, John. “Hastening the End of the Empire.” TIME, January 28, 1991.

 

Nelan, Bruce W. “The Edge of Darkness.” TIME, February 4, 1991.

 

Serrill, Michael. “The West: No Cold War II.” TIME, February 4, 1991.

 

Kohan, John. “Where Are the Reformers?” TIME, February 4, 1991.

 

Morrow, Lance. “Starting at Year Zero.” TIME, September 9, 1991.

 

Church, George J. “Into The Void.” TIME, September 9, 1991.

 

Nelan, Bruce W. “Perils of Nationhood.” TIME, September 9, 1991.

 

Carney, James. “A Country of Skeptics.” TIME, September 9, 1991.

 

Kohan, John. “A Chastened Character In Search of a Role.” TIME, September 9, 1991.

 

Talbott, Strobe. “And Now for the Sequels.” TIME, September 9, 1991.

 

Lemonick, Michael D. “What About the Nukes?” TIME, September 9, 1991.

 

Crowe, William J., Jr. “A Communist, a Patriot, a Soldier.” TIME, September 9, 1991.

 

Jackson, James O. “The Party Is Over.” TIME, September 9, 1991.

 

Tifft, Susan. “Forgotten but Not Gone.” TIME, September 9, 1991.

 

Riley, Michael. “Last of the Red-Hot Believers.” TIME, September 9, 1991.

 

Series 5: Miscellaneous

 

Box 3

Folder 4

 

Nicholson, Mark. “Lithuania threatens to declare independence from Soviet Union.” N.d.

 

“Lithuanians weigh prospects of a bloodbath: Leyla Boulton takes soundings on how the republic should play its cards.” N.d.

 

Goldman, Marshall I. N.d.

 

“USA’s Lithuanians want stronger stand.” USA Today, n.d.

 

Box 3

Folder 5

 

Various partial articles/missing pages

 

Box 3

Folder 6

 

Problems of Communism, July-August 1989.

 

Olcott, Martha Brill. “The Lithuanian Crisis.” Foreign Affairs, Summer 1990.

 

U.S.-Baltic Foundation News, September 11, 1990.

 

Kojelis, Linas. “Revolt Against Shoddiness and Rot.” Los Angeles Times, July 23, 1990.

 

Prunskiene, Kazimiera to Michael Camdassus, March 29, 1990. Letter.

 

Armstrong, William L., et al. to George Bush, April 3, 1990. Letter.

 

Landsbergis, Vytautas to George Bush, April 14, 1990. Letter.

 

Remarks of the Prime Minister of Lithuania Kazimiera Prunskiene to the Helsinki Commission, May 3, 1990.

 

Report from the Committee for an Independent Lithuania, n.d.

 

Kazimieras Zoromskis Painting Exhibition. Moscow: Union of Artists of the USSR, 1989.